Developing against web browser navigation

I find while writing web applications that I end up redefining what it means to go “back.” This means where I want the user to go when they click the browser’s back button.

The creation of ajax has killed the behavior of the navigation buttons in the browser. The navigation buttons on a browser are from the time of sundials and static web pages. We live in the world of atomic watches and dynamic content.

I don’t want you to go back to the last static web page that was loaded. More times than not, that messes up the user’s experience.

I have seen/implemented some solutions. One that we have used is when the first page is served up you start some kind of memory. Start a stack of the user’s actions, saving them in the session. When the user tries to go back to the main page, they are redirected to the real last page they were at.

This is good for ajax intensive applications. These days I am finding the percentage of ajax requests is many times higher than ajax requests when I am trying to create a rich user experience. The problem is you get into situations where the user really does want to go back to the last domain they are at, but your application, very annoyingly, will not let them leave.

As a user of the internet, I quickly learned that if I hit the back button many times quick enough, the page doesn’t have time to render the redirect, and I can get back. The fact I even know that is annoying, let alone what it takes away from my application.

Another solution is to have lots of static pages. Don’t let the user get too far without loading a new page. This way the back button can really only do minimal damage. Use lots of client side JavaScript and limit the amount of ajax calls to the bare minimum.

This has become industry standard for web pages which involve payment processing. Since the developers can’t guarantee that a user won’t hit the back refresh / or forward buttons, you have to be able to have some kind of state recovery.

If the distance between static pages is short, then you don’t do too much damage. However, this constraint limits what you can do with your web application, limiting ajax calls.

My favorite solution is to take the browsers out back and teach them about feature envy. They are telling me to serve html/JavaScript/Flash content inside their main pane architecture, and they will take care of the rest.

Well then, keep your hands to yourself!!! Navigating between web applications(domains) makes sense at some high level, because that is in the job of a web browser. They get you from one web application to another. However, inside of my web application, let me decide what I want the back button to do.

I understand some kind of backwards compatibility so the Geocities web page with the contra code on it doesn’t get lost (like we don’t all have it memorized). So, let me turn it off for my domain. Give me a JavaScript api to say what the back button behavior should be or let me at least turn it off.

There are some attempts to do just this, but they are not straightforward or part of the core library.

So, this will require all developers of web applications to implement navigation that makes sense within their web applications. Great!!! If they are worried at all about user experience, they have already thought about this and have some solution in place.

Getting rid of the back button just gives them more power. I have never met a developer who wouldn’t embrace more freedom in their tools.

Paul Pagel, CEO and Co-founder

Paul Pagel has been a driving force in the software craftsmanship movement since its inception.